Study examines risk factors and prevention of smoking in transgender and gendered adults


Credit: Vera Kratochvil / Public domain

Although the prevalence of adult smoking in the United States has declined dramatically over the past decades, smoking disparities persist among certain population groups, disproportionately affecting members of vulnerable communities. ..

One such group is transgender and sexist adults (TGEs) who are twice as likely to smoke as cisgender people. Studies show that with the right resources and opportunities, TGE smokers may want to quit just like cisgender smokers, but effective smoking cessation interventions for TGE adults are underdeveloped. He stays.

A new study by Anditan of the Annenberg Communication School at the University of Pennsylvania aims to fill this gap. This study aims to identify the factors that more or less increase the likelihood that adults with TGE smoke and reduce smoking in the long term. Tobacco use And associated health inequalities between TGE populations.

Tan and his colleagues used a community-based approach involving participants in some aspects of the study, including: data collection, analysis and interpretation – This will allow TGE people to work with teams to understand the factors that influence smoking habits and inform future interventions.

The study’s unique qualitative study design combines methodologies such as focus group discussions and private social media groups with a novel approach, collecting digital photographic audio data.

In the photo-voice approach, participants used the phone to take pictures when they felt they were smoking or, for some reason, were unable to take pictures. This contrasts with traditional research, where people can be asked to remember their experiences a week, a month, or even a year ago, Tan says. Photovoice allowed the team to present participants’ experiences in a visually rich, connected and real-time way.

Participants then shared these photos with a small private Facebook group. It’s fun and positive for many, says Tan.

“When we designed the study, we were concerned that it would be tedious and burdensome for the participants,” says Tan. “But the 47 participants who responded to the survey gave us positive feedback. They liked to be co-creators of knowledge.

In combination with the focus group transcripts, the researchers analyzed photographs and captions to generate themes related to smoking risk and protective factors. They identified six main themes: stressful experiences, gender affirmations, health awareness, social impacts, daily behavior and environmental cues.

Themes were not always clearly divided into risk or protective factors. For example, asserting gender gives people the assurance that they will not smoke. At the same time, a person identified as a male may want to take a cigarette to confirm their identity.

“Many of these risk factors may seem similar to those of cisgender smokers and stressors, but in adults with TGE these stressful experiences are much more common. “Tan says.

TGE participants also faced gender minority stressors such as internalized transphobia, gender-based violence, discrimination and stigma. Research participants recalled cases of incorrect gender at work, at school and in public places. Participants shared the experience of being physically assaulted by strangers on the street because of their appearance.

“These are truly traumatic experiences, significant risk factors for smoking in this population, and certainly outweigh the stressful experiences of cis-gender smokers,” Annenberg said. Says Tan, director of Health Communications and Equity Labs.

The results of this study will be used to help design culturally appropriate messages to promote smoking cessation for TGE individuals via social media. The data and lessons learned from this work will also inform other research involving the community. In this study, the research participants act as collaborators on new culturally sensitive approaches. The team is seeking funding for three years of continuous research to build TGE’s personalized interventions.

The study “Project Spring: A Study of Smoking Risks and Protective Factors Between Transgender and Gender-Expanding Individuals Using Digital PhotoVoice” Internet medical research journal.

In addition to Tan, the authors include Elaine Humvee of the Annenberg Communication School. Priscilla K. Gazarian; Sabreen Darwich; Bethany C. Farnum; Faith Coloma-Coker; Suha Ballout, University of Massachusetts Boston; Jennifer Potter, Harvard Medical School, Fenway Institute, Beth Israel Lahei Health.

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For more information:
Andy SL Tan et al, Interpersonal Smoking Protection and Risk Factors for Transgender and Gender Expansion (Project SPRING): A Qualitative Study Using Digital PhotoVoice, JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (2021). DOI: 10.2196 / 27417

Provided by
University of Pennsylvania

Quote: In Survey of Transgender and Gendered Adults (10, 2021) obtained on October 6, 2021 from We are studying the risk factors and prevention of smoking (March 6).

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Study examines risk factors and prevention of smoking in transgender and gendered adults

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