Link of COVID with type 1 diabetes in children; Study Eyes Ex-smokers and healthy lifestyles; CDC warns of rare polio-like disease in children
Researchers point to high risk of type 1 diabetes diagnosis in children after COVID infection
According to a new study that examined the electronic health records of more than 1 million patients aged 18 and under.
In the study, published in the journal JAMA Network Open, researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine report that children and adolescents who contracted COVID-19 were more likely to develop type 1 diabetes within six months of their COVID diagnosis. They found a 72% increase in new diabetes diagnoses in patients with COVID-19. However, they point out that there is no clear indication that COVID-19 causes type 1 diabetes.
The study states limitations that include “potential biases due to the observational and retrospective design of the electronic health record analysis, including the possibility of misclassification of diabetes as type 1 vs type 2, and the possibility that other unidentified factors explain the association”.
Nonetheless, the researchers say the increased risk of new-onset type 1 diabetes “adds an important consideration to discussions of risks and benefits for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection in pediatric populations.” .
Previous studies have indicated that respiratory infections are associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes. About 5-10% of people with diabetes have type 1, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be successfully treated.
Type 1 diabetes, which can be diagnosed at any age, is more common in children or young adults. It’s thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake), the CDC says. “This reaction destroys cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells,” the CDC states. “This process can take months or years before symptoms appear.”
“Families at high risk for type 1 diabetes in their children should be especially alert to symptoms of diabetes following COVID, and pediatricians should be alert to an influx of new cases of type 1 diabetes, especially as the Omicron variant of COVID is spreading so rapidly among children,” said Pamela Davis, Arline H. and Curtis F. Garvin Research Professor at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, corresponding author of the study. “We could see a substantial increase in this disease in the coming months. Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong challenge for those who have it, and the rising incidence represents a significant number of children affected.
NIH study: Former smokers who adopt healthy lifestyles may reduce risk of death from all causes
The benefits of quitting smoking for overall health cannot be overstated. A new study by researchers at the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, examines how former smokers who stick to a healthy lifestyle have a lower risk of dying from all causes, compared to those who are not adopting healthy habits, such as healthy eating, regular exercise and weight management.
The reduced risk of dying is associated with lower risks of cancer and heart and lung disease.
“Lifestyle interventions have not been extensively studied in former smokers, and these new findings may have important implications for the 52 million former smokers in the United States,” according to an NIH statement. .
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle – defined primarily as being physically active and having a healthy diet – was associated with a 27% reduced risk of death over the 19-year follow-up period, compared with no maintaining a healthy lifestyle, said the NIH. .
The findings, which were published in JAMA Network Open, were derived from an analysis of nearly 160,000 former smokers who participated in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
“I was surprised to see the strong associations [with lifestyle]said Maki Inoue-Choi, Ph.D., of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at NCI, lead author of the paper. “Former smokers who adhered to evidence-based recommendations for body weight, diet, physical activity and alcohol consumption had a lower mortality risk than former smokers who did not adhere to these recommendations.
Quitting smoking has well-established health benefits. However, former smokers still face higher risks of disease and premature death than those who have never smoked.
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States and around the world, according to the study. Tobacco use causes approximately 480,000 deaths in the United States and more than 8 million deaths worldwide each year.
CDC reports rise in cases of rare, polio-like disease in children known as AFM
A disease known as AFM (acute flaccid myelitis), which can rarely cause polio-like paralysis in children, has reemerged in the United States – after virtually disappearing for most of the COVID-19 pandemic. 19, according to an alert issued by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The CDC reports that pediatric hospitalizations in patients with severe respiratory illnesses who have also tested positive for rhinovirus (RV) and/or enterovirus (EV) have increased across the country this summer. RV and VE. “After further typing, some samples tested positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68),” the CDC states. “EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a rare but serious neurological complication involving limb weakness.”
The CDC also points out that while AFM rates are increasing, the condition is still extremely rare.
Common symptoms in children hospitalized with EV-D68 include coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Fever is reported in about half of known cases.
AFM is a rare but serious neurological condition. Symptoms of AFM include sudden onset of arm or leg weakness, loss of muscle tone and loss of reflexes are the most common symptoms. Seek immediate medical attention if you or your child develops any of these symptoms, the CDC urges. Over 90% of MFA cases occur in young children.
The CDC has previously seen an increase in AFM cases, 2015, 2016, and 2018.
In the United States, RVs travel year-round, with typical peaks in the spring and fall. Typical EV season is late summer and early fall; likewise, EV-D68 is believed to peak in late summer and early fall.
The CDC provides more information on these links: enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM).